THE CENTURY-LONG CHANGE OF SEASONAL BIRD MIGRATIONS IN THE MIDDLE LATITUDES OF THE EUROPEAN EAST

A. N. Soloviev

Abstract


During the XX century, average arrival dates of birds synchronously changed on climatic phases from +5 to –9 days, in general for a century they have shifted to earlier values from –1 to –14 days. The correlation analysis have been carried out on the base using the arrival date of birds in the Kirov City and fluctuations of the mean air temperature during the XXth century. We have shown that spring bird arrival dates are changed synchronously according to fluctuations of the air temperature. The spring arrival dates of the near-migrant and distant-migrant birds shifted to more earlier dates in the period of more warm winters that is observed for two decades at the turn of XXth and XXI centuries. This is confirmed by abnormally high temperature during late autumn, winter and early spring that to occur most frequently now. The variability of the average arrival dates of near-migrants and distant-migrants have the similar maximum value (–14 days in the rook and – 13 days in the corncrake) and standard mean deviations (in 11 near-migrants are ±4.8–7.7 and in 8 near-migrant are ±4.8–8.2).  At the beginning of the XXI century the average value of the negative trend exceeded the standard deviation of arrival dates in some species (the rook, the common starling, the common chaffinch, the common gull, the barn swallow, the common swift, the corncrake).


Keywords


birds; seasonal migrations; the European East

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